AMPK (5' AMP protein kinase) is an enzyme that is found in muscles, liver and brain that favors the use of fatty acids in muscle fibers and the ketogenesis in the liver, therefore improving lipidic power in athletes.
It modulates insulin secretion, increasing the cellular uptake of glucose. It also promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, increasing cellular respiration.
Hydroxytyrosol, Berberine, Lipoic Acid, Metformin are activators of AMPK.
Even Nitrates, Omega 3, Pomegranate Extract, Acetyl-L-carnitine all improve the efficiency and synthesis of mitochondria.
A synergic combination of these supplements could significantly improve aerobic performance.
HT is the most important polyphenolic compound found in extra-virgin olive oil and is held responsible for the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.
50 ml of extra-virgin olive oil rich in polyphenols, such as the Monocultivar Moraiolo, contain about 3 mg of HT.
Recent studies (Journal of nutritional biochemistry 2010; 21: 634-644) have shown an activation of AMPK in adipocytes comparable to that of AICAR, but with 500 times lower concentration.
HT is effective in reducing muscle damage and secondary immune deficiency in strenuous physical exercise (Free Radic Biol Med 2011; 50: 1437-1446).
HT also showed anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and neuroprotective (by passing the blood-brain barrier) effects, significantly reducing oxidative stress.
The inhibition of LDL oxidation also protects against atherosclerotic damage.
The average HT dose to adequately stimulate AMPK is 0.5 - 1.0 mg/kg body weight: an amount impossible to be achieved by consuming olive oil alone. Fortunately it is possible to extract large amounts of HT from the residual waters of the production of olive oil: there are supplements that contain 25 mg per capsule therefore ensuring an effective integration.
It is an alkaloid extracted from a Chinese herb, known for its ability to reduce levels of LDL-cholesterol by about 30-40%, with a distinct mechanism of action from that of statins (Nature Medicine 2004; 10: 1344 - 1351).
Berberine is able to activate AMBK (Diabetes 2006; 55: 2256-2264),
also showing an anti-diabetic and protective activity in cases of Alzheimer's disease (Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007; 352: 498-502).
The recommended dose is 1 mg/kg.
ALPHA-LIPOIC ACID (A-LA)
It is a small molecule, a powerful antioxidant, which is found mainly in red meat, but also in spinach, broccoli and potatoes.
It improves insulin sensitivity, favoring the entry of glucose into cells, and in particular glycogen synthesis.
By decreasing the insulin response, it helps reducing body fat.
A-LA is an AMPK activator and in association with Acetyl-L-carnitine it promotes the biogenesis of mitochondria.
The effective dose of A-LA is 300-600mg.
The juice and extract from pomegranate protect the nitric oxide (NO) from oxidation, extending the action (Nitric Oxide 2006; 15: 93-102) and strengthening the effect.
1000mg of pomegranate extract taken with water 30 minutes before exercise can extend the running time (time to exhaustion) by about 10% (Apple Physiol Nutr Metab 2014; 39: 1038-1042).
Taken together with Nitrates, the action is further extended and strengthened.
Pomegranate is a vasodilator, reducing blood pressure.
It has antibacterial action and protects against bladder and prostate cancer.
Pomegranate polyphenols, in the presence of an adequate intake of soluble fibers, help in creating a healthy intestinal bacterial flora, producing
Urolithin A, which contributes to the maintenance of mitochondrial efficiency, with anti-aging action.
Bacterial fermentation of soluble fibers increases the production of ketones, which can improve aerobic performance.
The recommended dose is 1000-2000 mg per day, preferably accompanied by an adequate intake of soluble fibers (15 to 30g per day).
EPA and DHA are able to activate PPARs, receptors that stimulate cellular lipid metabolism, increasing the enzymes involved in cellular respiration, with a mechanism similar to that caused by a strict training regimen (The Journal of Experimental Biology 2009; 212: 1106-1114).
Taken with a dose of 3-5 g per day, they improve the efficiency and biogenesis of mitochondria, increasing the use of lipids as fuel.
They are also able to increase lean body mass while reducing fat mass by reducing the expression of lipogenic genes (the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2010; 7:31).